Linux For Beginners: Linux Family Overview AND Methods for Installing Linux Operating Systems


The Linux Family AND Different Ways Of Installing
Linux Operating Systems Hello guys, Welcome to OsChannel. My name
is Aditya. In this video, we are going to take a look
at some operating systems from the Linux family and the different ways of Installing these
Operating Systems. So let us start with the Linux Family tree.
As you can see on the left hand side, I have the Linux family tree.
And what I have done is, I have grouped these Operating Systems into three families. The
Debain family which covers the major part of the chart, and then we have the second
major footprint form the RedHat Family, which is followed by Slackware family on number
three. Now, the reason for grouping these operating
systems is that, In Linux you will find a lot of variants, and if you come across one
of them and you know to which family that variant belongs, then you will be very comfortable
managing that OS if you have knowledge about that family.
So let’s visit some operating systems from the Debian family.
Now Debian itself is one of the earliest Linux Operating Systems with over forty three thousand
software packages available for installation. Now this is one of the main reasons why people
adopted Debain as their main OS. Inside the Debian family we have Knoppix.
Now Knoppix was mainly designed to boot directly from a CD, DVD like medium.
Has it own advantages, but not that good for installing it as your Primary OS.
Next we move onto Ubuntu. Now Ubuntu has been very successful Linux
Operating System. It is the third most used Desktop OS after
Windows and Mac. The Linux community has started developing
variants itself from Ubuntu. Such variants include Xubuntu, Mint, Peppermint
OS, the Chromium OS and even Goobuntu which is the Google’s take on Ubuntu.
So those were a few Linux variants from the Debian family.
Let’s take a look at the Slackware family. Now Slackware OS itself has been famous for
its simplicity. By simplicity it doesn’t mean “easy to use”.
It’s like Slackware OS majorly focuses on command line usage rather than the graphical
interfaces. The SUSE Linux Operating systems from the
Slackware family have also gained a lot of attention in the Linux community. SUSE started
its commercial version also known as the SLES or Suse Linux Enterprise server, which mainly
focuses on stability and buisness support. On the other hand, OpenSuse focuses on providing
user friendly desktops and feature rich server environments.
Because of this SUSE has recently become an aggressive competitor in OS market.
This brings us to the RedHat Family. RedHat discontinued its RedHat Linux OS in
2003 to start the commercial RedHat Enterprise Linux.
RHEL crazily focuses on stability and best Linux support.
This isn’t free though, and RHEL users have to pay for the RHEL updates and other support
services. This gave rise to the CentOS, which is an
operating system that attempts to provide similar Enterprise class platform with free
support. Now CentOS is a community based Enterprise
Operating System which is derived from the sources of RHEL and it is closest to RHEL
in terms of functionality. On the other hand there is also the Fedora
Project which is sponsored by RedHat. Now Fedora as an operating system focuses
mainly on innovation and bleeding edge technology. And it the operating system that is used by
the creator of Linux Kernel. Those were a few Operating Systems from the
Linux Family. Lets take a quick look at the different installation
methods now. Now all the Linux OS Vendors usually provide
their Operating Systems for free in ISO formats. There can be a variety of ISO’s available
for a single OS and this is where lot of people get confused on which ISO they should download.
For each Linux variant, the most common type of ISO’s you will find are Full ISO and the
minimal ISO. The Full ISO usually contains a wide variety
of packages that can be used to setup anything from Desktop to Database and Web servers,
but most of these packages are not required by all users.
This also makes the full ISO large in size, causing longer download and installation time.
But if you are a beginner or you want to have access to all the packages, then you should
always go with the full ISO. On the other hand the minimal ISO only contains
the packages that are required to install an extremely basic functioning Operating system.
This avoids installation of unwanted packages. Once the Operating system is installed users
can install only the required packages according to their specific requirements from the package
repositories. So once you download the ISO image you need,
you will have to create an installation media. This can be done by burning the ISO onto a
CD, DVD, USB drive, SD card or even a Hard drive.
Once the installation media is ready, we can boot up the system from that media and initiate
the installation. Another type of ISO that is provided by some
OS vendors is the Network Install ISO. This ISO can initiate the installation, but
it does not contain the packages for installing the operating system.
So it will guide you through the selection of language, Keyboard layout, timezone etc
etc… and finally come at a screen where it will ask you for the location of the package
repository. This is where you can provide the URL location
of the package repository form the Internet or your local network.
That repository can serve packages using any of these common methods which include HTTP,
SMB, FTP or NFS. Most vendors also provide a LIVE ISO which
can be used to test the Operating system before installing it.
Now there can be times when you do not have physical access to the machines to perform
the entire installations. At such times we can use Remote Installation
Methods. One such method is Installing via Virtual
Network Computing, also known as VNC. VNC allows us to perform graphical installations
on remote machines over a network. These days most network cards also support
PXE boot. This feature can be combined with DHCP and TFTP to perform Remote Installations.
In this method, once you start the system the PXE enabled Network card procures an IP
address from the DHCP server on the network. It then locates the Network Bootstrap Program
and downloads it for execution. Once executed this NBP loads the bootloader which in turn
initiates the installation process. We can also automate an Entire Linux Installation.
While performing and installation we are prompted for a lot of configuration options like the
timezone, Keyboard layout, partitions, packages etc..
The answers to these questions can be placed in a file and provided to the installer during
Installation. ks.cfg file is one such file that is used by the RedHat family.
The Debian family uses the preseed.cfg file, whereas autoinst.xml file is used by the SUSE
family of Linux Operating systems. Once these files are created they can be used
to perform repetitive installations of OS instances.
The common methods known here are, Installing with Kickstart, Installing using Preseeding
and Installing with AutoTaST. If OS Installations are performed very often,
then we can also setup Provisioning servers which are capable of performing complete unattended
installations. Cobbler Server is one such provisioning server
that can be used for multiple network installationsfrom a central point.
Cobbler initially supported installation of only RedHat based operating systems.
But recently, it has come up with support for Ubuntu as well.
FAI or Fully Automated Installation Server is another such option for performing Automated
Installations of Debian based Operating systems from a central point.
So guys, that was an overview on Installation Methods.
In next few Videos, I’m going to show you, how you can create your own bootable CD, DVD
or USB drive and perform a Manual Installation. Also I’ll do a few videos on How to perform
automated Installations, so if you have any questions, suggestions or any improvement
points as this was my first video, do let me know in the comments below and don’t forget
to subscribe. Thank you for watching, this is Aditya signing
out.